- Yerevan, Armenia
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Republic Square stands as the vibrant heart of Yerevan and serves as the cornerstone of the General Plan of Yerevan, a visionary urban design crafted between 1924 and 1936 by architect Alexander Tamanyan. It occupies a central position, nestled at the crossroads of Abovyan, Nalbandyan, Amiryan, V. Sargsyan streets, and Tigran Mets avenue.
During the Soviet era, Republic Square was known as Lenin Square, and a statue of Lenin, crafted by sculptor S. Mercurov, with architectural contributions from N. Paremuzova and L. Vardanov, graced the southern part of the square until its removal in 1991.
The architectural ensemble of the square encompasses several remarkable edifices, including the History Museum of Armenia, the Government of the Republic of Armenia, the Central Post Office of the Republic of Armenia, the Marriott Armenia Hotel, and the former Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Energy. These grand structures, predominantly constructed from pink and yellow tuff, exhibit neoclassical design elements infused with Armenian motifs. The construction of the primary buildings unfolded between 1926 and 1958. Architect Al. Tamanyan initiated the design of the Government House, and upon his passing, his son, G. Tamanyan, undertook the completion of the project from 1936 to 1952. The Hotel and Post Office buildings were designed by Mark Grigoryan and Edward Sarapyan. Meanwhile, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Energy, and Territorial Administration buildings were conceived by Samvel Safaryan and Varazdat Arshatyan. In 1975, the Historical Museum of Armenia and the National Gallery of Armenia attained their final architectural form, designed by Mark Grigoryan.
Republic Square is home to Yerevan's iconic central clock, perched atop the Government building's tower since 1941. This monumental timepiece features a 3.6-meter diameter and two hands – a 170-centimeter-long hour hand weighing 4.85 kilograms and a 110-centimeter-long minute hand weighing 3.5 kilograms. Artsrun Yavroyan, the first clockmaker of the city, installed this timekeeping marvel. In 2001, the clock's mechanical components were replaced with electronic ones in its sole technical overhaul.
At the core of the square, you'll find the central singing fountains, initially designed by A. Tamanyan in 1939, but not constructed until 1955, according to the plans of architect E. Sarapyan. These fountains were transformed into dynamic, colorful singing fountains in 1970 and 1988. In 2007, they underwent a thorough renovation, complete with computer-controlled lighting and sound systems. Furthermore, in September 2011, new fountains were introduced, enhancing their modernization.
Today, Republic Square showcases an oval layout with a central part housing the fountains and a surrounding basin. The architectural style of the House of Government greatly influenced the decorative character of the square complex, dictating the proportions of the square's structures and the heights of the buildings. Graceful arches, national motifs, and a soft pink color palette dominate the square's aesthetic.
Republic Square is a beloved hub for entertainment, frequently hosting open-air concerts culminating in splendid fireworks displays. Each year, the republic's largest Christmas tree graces the square, and a festive New Year's event is a cherished tradition in this iconic location.